托福听说训练之(综合练习)

发布于 2017-11-25  96 次阅读


by XIAOLAI on 2008/12/11

迅速模仿托福听力的朗读强调,其实并不是特别难。分如下几步处理就可以很快地把握重点:

  1. 分辨被强读的词都有那些?它们的音调分别是什么?有没有被强读的单词带着明显相对更高的音高?
  2. 被弱读的单词,其中的那些元音发生了明显的变化,向/ə/靠拢?
  3. 那些地方被连读了,前后各个音节的重音在哪儿
  4. 有没有/t/、/k/、/p/之类的辅音失爆?另外,还有那些词尾的辅音因后面跟着辅音开头的单词而只有停顿听不到声音?
  5. 有没有被浊化的/t/存在?
  6. 一句话是不是一口气读完的,如果不是,在哪里有着明显的停顿?(气群的划分)

反复听每一句话,尝试着回答以上的各个问题,而后在文本上作出相应的记号——把手中的文本标记成乐谱一样的东西,而后就可以刻意地模仿。

以下是对一篇完整的托福听力文章的分析:

Community service is an important component of education here at our university.

  • “Community”被重读,并且/mju:/这个音节伴随着相对更高的音高;
  • “Communitiy service is”是一个气群,其中的“service is”被连起来,听起来与“service”这个单词的复数“services”一样;
  • “an important component of”中,“important”与“component”都被强读,“important”中的/pɔr/读平调,词尾/t/失爆;“component”中的/pəʊ/读降升调;“of”与前面的“component”连读,并弱读为/əf/;
  • “here at our university”中,原本的语流应为/ˈhɪə-æt-aʊə-juniˈvə:siti/;最终,“here”被强读了,降调;“university”被强读,平调;at被弱读为/ət/;“our”也被弱读,变得很短,/aʊə/;而“at”中的/ə/,由于前面被强读的单词“here”就是以/ə/结尾的,所以被同化了,而“at”中的/t/,前面是元音(/ə/),后面跟着的也是元音(/aʊə/),于是这个/t/被浊化了。最终,整个气群听起来是这样的:/ˈhɪə-daʊə-juniˈvə:siti/。

We encourage all students to volunteer for at least one community activity before they graduate.

  • “encourage”读成/inˌkəˌiʤ/其中的后来个短元音因加上重音而变得长一些;平调;
  • “all”被强读,升调;
  • “to”被弱读,几乎成了/t/;
  • “volunteer”,词尾的重音/tɪə/被拉得很长;
  • “for at least”中的两个/t/都失爆了;“for”被弱读成/fɚ/;
  • “one”被强读,降调;
  • “community activity”被弱读,所有长元音都变短了,两处词尾的/iti/都读成相当于/ədɪ/(这里的/d/代表浊化了的/t/)
  • “before”被强读,降调;
  • “they”被弱读成/ðɪ/,甚至都接近于/ð/;
  • “graduate”被强调,降调。

A new community program called “One On One” helps elementary students who’ve fallen behind.

  • “new”被强读,升调,并伴着相对更高的音高;
  • “program”的为音节/græm/平调,略微拖长;
  • “called”强读,拉长,平调;
  • “One on One”,第二个“One”被强读,降调;之前的“One on”两个词连读;
  • “helps elementary students”中的“helps elementary”连读的非常明显——因为“elementary”的重音在第一个音节;“help”中的“p”失爆;读的技巧在于,读到/help/时,读完/hel/之后就把嘴唇闭上,稍微停顿(练习的时候可以夸张地停顿长达两三秒),而后直接张开嘴唇读/ˈselɪ-men-təri/(第一个音节读成升调);
  • “who’ve fallen behind”,“who’ve”中的/v/,由于后面跟着的是相同唇形的/f/,所以听不到发音,但只是没有气流振动而已,该音的长度依然保持,所以听起来“who”之后有点停顿,而后才读出出升调的“fallen”;“behind”强读,降调。

You education majors might be especially interested in it because it offers the opportunity to do some teaching — that is, tutoring in math and English.

  • “You”升调;
  • “education”伴随着更高的音高;
  • “might”词尾的/t/失爆;
  • “especially”强读,伴随着更高的音高;
  • “interested in it”末尾的/t/,口腔动作完整,但没有读出气流振动,感觉像切音;
  • “it offers”中的/t/夹在两个原因之间,所以,浊化;“offer”升调;
  • “teaching”被强读,平调;
  • “that is“中的/t/浊化;
  • “tutoring”强读,降调;
  • “and English”连读,“English”被强读,降调;

You’d have to volunteer two hours a week for one semester.

  • “You’d have to”读成/ju-dæf-tu/
  • “volunteer”尾音拉长,平调;
  • “two”强读、降调;
  • “for”弱读为/fɚ/
  • “one”强读,降调;

You can choose to help a child with math, English, or both.

  • “can”被弱读成/kən/
  • “choose”、“help”、“child”、“math”、“English”,全部为升调;
  • “or”与“both”都被强读、“or”升调,“both”降调;

Half-hour lessons are fine, so you could do a half hour of each subject two days a week.

  • “Half”,/hæf/,被强读,升调;
  • “fine”,被强读,降调
  • “half”与“each”都被强读、升调
  • “two”被强读、平调
  • “week”被强读、降调

Professor Dodge will act as a mentor to the tutors

  • “will act”连读,“will”弱读为/wəl/,“act”强读,平调:/wə-ˈlæ(k)t/,其中的/k/失爆;
  • “mentor”,被强读
  • “tutors”被强读、降调

– he’ll be available to help you with lesson plans or to offer suggestions for activities.

  • “with lesson plans”,“with”弱读为/wəð/,由于后面紧跟辅音/l/,所以,/ð/听不到,但停顿依然存在;
  • “or to offer”,“to”中的/t/浊化,听起来与/d/接近;

He has office hours every Tuesday and Thursday afternoon.

  • 第一个气群到“hours”结束,“hours”,升调;
  • “Tuesday and Thursday afternoon”,除了“and”之外均被强读。

You can sign up for the program with him and begin the tutoring next week.

  • “can”被弱读成/kən/

I’m sure you’ll enjoy this community service and you’ll gain valuable experience at the same time.

  • 这句话读得很有弹性,“I’m”、“sure”、“enjoy”、“valuable”、“same”、“time”,均被重读
  • “you’ll enjoy”、“valuable experience”,两处/l + e/的连读。

It looks good on your resume, too — showing that you’ve had experience with children and that you care about your community.

  • “looks good”中的/k/只有细微停顿没有声音;
  • “resume”,降升调
  • “too”降调。
  • “children”之后有个明显的停顿;
  • “and”被强读,降调;
  • “care about”连读。

If you’d like to sign up, or if you have any questions, stop by Professor Dodge’s office this week.

  • “you’d like to”中的/d/没有声音、甚至连停顿都没有;
  • “sign up”,读完/saɪ-nʌ/之后闭上嘴唇,略作停顿,直接开口读“or if you have any question”(读得很快);
  • “Dodge”加上所属格“’s”之后,整体读/dɔ-ʤɜs/

无他,惟手熟尔。
——《卖油翁》
Practice usually does not make perfect, but it does make better…
——李笑来